Amaury was born as Olympe Vignel in Tracy-sur-Loire, a commune in the French department of Nièvre, on 19 June 1901. She married Gaspard Bernard Amaury on 31 May 1924 in Nivernais; they had four children: Ginette, Jacques, Michel, and Claude.
Amaury worked in agriculture alongside her husband, and moved eight times, living in four different departments, settling in the Loiret department in the early 1960s. She was widowed in 1982.
In 2003, Amaury moved into a retirement home in Amilly, Loiret department. As a supercentenarian, she had five grandchildren, seven great-grandchildren, and two great-great-grandchildren.
Amaury was originally believed to have become France’s oldest resident following the 14 July 2013 death of Suzanne Burrier, but the discovery of Marie Liguinen in July 2014 meant she was once again the second-oldest. She regained the title after Liguinen’s death on 2 April 2015, by which time she was reported to be very frail. At 113 years, 287 days, she holds the record of becoming France’s oldest living person at the greatest age.
Amaury died in Amilly on 12 May 2015 at the age of 113 years, 327 days. Her successor as the oldest living person in France was Eudoxie Baboul of French Guiana.