Gadyuchkina was born in the village of Norskoye on the northwestern outskirts of the city of Yaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia (then Russian Empire). She claims to have been born on November 24, 1909; however, according to the research conducted by the ESO, her actual birthdate is December 5, 1910. During the interviews, she described the hardships after the October Revolution. Her family would wake up in the morning without knowing what to eat or drink. They would run to the fields, collect frozen potatoes, and fry them at home. When she was nine years old, her mother died of cancer. Her father, a carpenter, had to work a lot to afford both bread and hay for their cow. She had to leave school in the 3rd grade.
At the age of 15, she found a job at the local spinning factory “Red Pass” (Russian: “Красный Перевал”), dedicating her entire career to the establishment. She initially served as an auxiliary worker, progressing to the roles of spinner and assistant foreman. Eventually, she became a production leader, for which she once received a gramophone as a gift from her superiors. At some point, she married Sergey Petrovich, and the couple went on to have five children. The couple firstly lived together with her husband’s sister, but later when her husband became the secretary of a workshop party organization (he worked at the same factory), they were given separate housing. Her eldest son was born at the beginning of World War II, and the youngest in 1945. Her daughter Rita was 11 years old at the beginning of the war. Before her husband left for the front, he instructed her to exchange any items they possessed for food if necessary. Her husband died in 1956, due to an injury received at the factory. She retired after 52 years of work in the factory.
When visited by journalists on her birthday in 2017, she expressed her dislike for the attention she had been receiving over the years. As she had been visited almost every year by journalists since turning 100, she jokingly remarked, “When will you leave me alone?!” She later added, “Well, why does everyone need to see that I’m still hanging out here? What am I, some kind of exhibit?” At the time, she had six grandchildren, six great-grandchildren, and three great-great-grandchildren. As of November 2022, both her hearing and eyesight had already deteriorated, rendering her unable to read books, an activity she was engaged in not long before. Despite this, she made an effort to stay updated on news from both her country and the world. At the time, three of her children were still living (a daughter and two sons). When asked what the secret of longevity is, she replied: “You have to work and treat everyone kindly.”