Bain was born as Émilienne Lucienne Jallais in Marigny-Brizay, a commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine’s Vienne department. She was orphaned at the age of five, and taken in by the Daughters of the Cross orphanage in nearby La Puye.
Bain married her husband, André, and the couple had a son, Elie, on 4 November 1928. The family moved to Paris, where Bain worked as a seamstress for many years until her retirement around 1972.
Until she was 103 years old, Bain lived in Chauvigny. She moved into a retirement facility in Saint-Pierre-de-Maillé in 2005. On her 110th birthday, she celebrated with her numerous grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
Bain died on 22 April 2012 at the age of 110 years, 51 days.