Beck was born as Marie Emilie Ilse Peitz in Dresden, Saxony on 5 October 1906. She worked as an office clerk.
Beck survived the bombing of Dresden in February 1945 with her son, Rainer, who later became a respected gynaecologist. He died in 2002.
Beck moved into a nursing home in Harpersdorf, Thuringia, in 1999. She never took any medication, and got along with everyone she met. Beck also enjoyed tracking the weather in Harpersdorf. She celebrated her 107th birthday singing folk songs with fellow nursing home residents. She attended church services until the age of 109.
At the time of her 110th birthday, Beck had three grandchildren and five great-grandchildren. She died on 29 March 2018 at the age of 111 years, 175 days.